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In re Nexium Antitrust Litigation

United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit

January 21, 2015

IN RE NEXIUM ANTITRUST LITIGATION. ASTRAZENECA AB, et al., Defendants-Appellants,
v.
UNITED FOOD AND COMMERCIAL WORKERS UNIONS AND EMPLOYERS MIDWEST HEALTH BENEFITS FUND, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellees

For Allied Services Division Welfare Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; James R. Dugan II, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; David Baylis Franco, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Douglas Robert Plymale, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Thomas G. Shapiro, Shapiro Haber & Urmy LLP, Boston, MA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For Laborers International Union of North America Local 17 Health Care Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; James R. Dugan II, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; David Baylis Franco, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Douglas Robert Plymale, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Thomas G. Shapiro, Shapiro Haber & Urmy LLP, Boston, MA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For Laborers International Union of North America Local 35 Health Care Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Thomas G. Shapiro, Shapiro Haber & Urmy LLP, Boston, MA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For A.F. of L. - A.G.C. Building Trades Welfare Plan, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For AMERICAN SALES COMPANY, LLC, on behalf of itself and all others similarly situated, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Don Barrett, Barrett Law Group PA, Lexington, MS; Caitlin G. Coslett, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Donna M. Evans, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Kristen Johnson Parker, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; David S. Nalven, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; John D. Radice, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; Thomas M. Sobol, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Andrew J. Vasicek, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA.

For Value Drug Company, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Brian D. Brooks, Smith Segura & Raphael LLP, New York, NY; Elena K. Chan, Garwin Gerstein & Fisher LLP, New York, NY; Russell A. Chorush, Heim Payne& Chorush LLP, Houston, TX; Caitlin G. Coslett, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Donna M. Evans, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Ephraim R. Gerstein, Garwin Gerstein & Fisher LLP, New York, NY; Joseph Opper, Garwin Gerstein & Fisher LLP, New York, NY; Peter S. Pearlman, Cohn Lifland Pearlman Herrman & Knopf LLP, Saddle Brook, NJ; Susan C. Segura, Smith Segura & Raphael LLP, Alexandria, LA; Thomas M. Sobol, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA.

For Burlington Drug Company Inc., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Brian D. Brooks, Smith Segura & Raphael LLP, New York, NY; Elena K. Chan, Garwin Gerstein & Fisher LLP, New York, NY; Russell A. Chorush, Heim Payne& Chorush LLP, Houston, TX; Donna M. Evans, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Ephraim R. Gerstein, Garwin Gerstein & Fisher LLP, New York, NY; Peter S. Pearlman, Cohn Lifland Pearlman Herrman & Knopf LLP, Saddle Brook, NJ; Susan C. Segura, Smith Segura & Raphael LLP, Alexandria, LA; Thomas M. Sobol, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA.

For ROCHESTER DRUG CO-OPERATIVE, INC., on behalf of itself and others similarly situated, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Caitlin G. Coslett, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Eric Cramer, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Donna M. Evans, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Peter R. Kohn, Farqui & Farqui LLP, Jenkintown, PA; Joseph T. Lukens, Faruqi & Faruqi, Jenkintown, PA; Daniel C. Simons, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Thomas M. Sobol, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; David F. Sorensen, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Archana Tamoshunas, Taus, Cebulash & Landau, LLP, New York, NY; Yechiel Michael Twersky, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Nicholas Urban, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA.

For Laborers International Union of North America Local 345 Health Care Fund, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Virginia E. Anello, Douglas & London, P.C., New York, NY; James R. Dugan II, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; Michael A. London, Douglas & London, P.C., New York, NY; Douglas Robert Plymale, Dugan Law Firm LLC, New Orleans, LA; Michael Aaron Rose, Hach Rose LLP, New York, NY; Frank R. Schirripa, Hach Rose Schirripa & Cheverie LLP, New York, NY; Frank R. Schirripa, Schoengold Sporn Laitman & Lometti, P.C., New York, NY.

For Walgreen Co., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Lauren C. Ravkind, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Austin, TX.

For Kroger Company, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Lauren C. Ravkind, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Austin, TX.

Fpr Safeway Incorporated, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Lauren C. Ravkind, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Austin, TX.

For Supervalu, Inc., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Lauren C. Ravkind, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Austin, TX.

For Heb Grocery Co. LP, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Lauren C. Ravkind, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Austin, TX.

For Giant Eagle, Inc., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Erin Allen, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA; Moira E. Cain-Mannix, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA; Brian C. Hill, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA; Scott D. Livingston, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA; Bernard D. Marcus, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA; Jonathan D. Marcus, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA; Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; James F. Rosenberg, Marcus & Shapira, Pittsburgh, PA.

For Rite Aid Corporation, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Eric L. Bloom, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Monica L. Rebuck, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Barry L. Refsin, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Philadelphia, PA.

For Rite Aid Headquarters Corporation, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Eric L. Bloom, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Monica L. Rebuck, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Barry L. Refsin, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Philadelphia, PA.

For Jcg (Pjc) USA, LLC, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Monica L. Rebuck, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Barry L. Refsin, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Philadelphia, PA.

For Maxi Drug, Inc., d/b/a: Brooks Pharmacy, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Eric L. Bloom, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Monica L. Rebuck, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Barry L. Refsin, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Philadelphia, PA.

For Eckerd Corporation, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Eric L. Bloom, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Anna Theresa Neill, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Scott E. Perwin, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL; Monica L. Rebuck, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Barry L. Refsin, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Philadelphia, PA.

For Amerisourcebergen Drug Corporation, Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Donald W. Myers, Buchanan Ingersoll & Rooney PC, Philadelphia, PA.

For Meijer, Inc., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Peter A. Barile III, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; John P. Bjork, Vaneck Vickers & Masini PC, Chicago, IL; James E. Cecchi, Carella, Byrne, Bain, Gilfillan etc., Roseland, NJ; Caitlin G. Coslett, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Bradley J. Demuth, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; Donna M. Evans, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Linda P. Nussbaum, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; Thomas M. Sobol, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Lindsey H. Taylor, Carella, Byrne, Bain, Gilfillan etc., Roseland, NJ.

For Meijer Distribution, Inc., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Peter A. Barile III, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; John P. Bjork, Vaneck Vickers & Masini PC, Chicago, IL; James E. Cecchi, Carella, Byrne, Bain, Gilfillan etc., Roseland, NJ; Caitlin G. Coslett, Berger & Montague PC, Philadelphia, PA; Bradley J. Demuth, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; Donna M. Evans, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Linda P. Nussbaum, Grant & Eisenhofer PA, New York, NY; Thomas M. Sobol, Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro LLP, Cambridge, MA; Lindsey H. Taylor, Carella, Byrne, Bain, Gilfillan etc., Roseland, NJ.

For Fraternal Order of Police Miami Lodge 20 Insurance Trust Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Natalie Finkelman Bennett, Shepherd Finkelman Miller & Shah LLP, Media, PA; Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Anne K. Fornecker, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Austin, TX; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Steve D. Shadowen, Hangley, Aronchick, Segal & Pudlin, Harrisburg, PA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For Cvs, Inc., Plaintiff (14-1521, 14-1522): Douglas H. Patton, Kenny Nachwalter PA, Miami, FL.

For New York Hotel Trades Council And Hotel Assoc. of New York City, Inc. Health Benefits Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; George Farah, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Christopher Lometti, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Sharon K. Robertson, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For United Food & Commercial Workers Unions And Employers Midwest Health Benefits Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Justin N. Boley, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL; Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Kimberly A. Dougherty, Janet Jenner & Suggs LLC, Boston, MA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Jonathan Shapiro, Stern Shapiro Weissberg & Garin LLP, Boston, MA; Bethany R. Turke, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL; Edward A. Wallace, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For Michigan Regional Council of Carpenters Employee Benefits Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Nicole M. Acchione, Schnader, Harrison, Segal & Lewis, Cherry Hill, NJ; Donald A. Broggi, Scott & Scott LLP, New York, NY; Christopher M. Burke, Scott & Scott LLP, San Diego, CA; Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Joseph P. Guglielmo, Scott & Scott LLP, New York, NY; Walter W. Noss, Scott & Scott LLP, San Diego, CA; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Lisa J. Rodriguez, Schnader, Harrison, Segal & Lewis, Cherry Hill, NJ; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For International Union of Machinists And Aerospace Workers District No. 15 Health Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Brian D. Penny, Goldman Scarlato Karon & Penny PC, Rador, PA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Kevin Peter Roddy, Wilentz, Goldman & Spitzer, Woodbridge, NJ; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 595 Health And Welfare Fund, Plaintiff - Appellee (14-1521, 14-1522): Glen DeValerio, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; Daniel C. Girard, Girard Gibbs LLP, San Francisco, CA; Jayne A. Goldstein, Pomerantz Grossman Hufford Dahlstrom & Gross LLP, Weston, FL; Aaron David Kaufmann, Leonard Carder LLP, Oakland, CA; Nathaniel L. Orenstein, Berman DeValerio, Boston, MA; J. Douglas Richards, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll PLLC, New York, NY; Steve D. Shadowen, Hilliard & Shadowen LLC, Mechanicsburg, PA; Christina C. Sharp, Girard Gibbs LLP, San Francisco, CA; Kenneth A. Wexler, Wexler Wallace LLP, Chicago, IL.

For Astrazeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): Nicholas W. Allen, McCarter & English LLP, Boston, MA; James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Ashley E. Bass, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Dane H. Bustwinkas, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Stanley E. Fisher, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Courtney R. Forrest, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Paul B. Gaffney, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Jonathan Gimblett, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Benjamin M. Greenblum, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Timothy C. Hester, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Heidi K. Hubbard, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Thomas A. Isaacson, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; John E. Joiner, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Michael P. Kelly, McCarter & English LLP, Wilmington, DE; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Enrique D. Longton, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Jonathan B. Pitt, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; John E. Schmidtlein, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Kannon K. Shanmugam, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Evie Spanos, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Einar Stole, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Adam R. Tarosky, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; James H. Weingarten, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Marcie R. Ziegler, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; William A. Zucker, McCarter & English LLP, Boston, MA.

For Astrazeneca AB, Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Ashley E. Bass, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Dane H. Bustwinkas, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Stanley E. Fisher, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Courtney R. Forrest, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Paul B. Gaffney, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Jonathan Gimblett, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Benjamin M. Greenblum, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Timothy C. Hester, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Heidi K. Hubbard, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Thomas A. Isaacson, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; John E. Joiner, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Michael P. Kelly, McCarter & English LLP, Wilmington, DE; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Enrique D. Longton, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Jonathan B. Pitt, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; John E. Schmidtlein, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Kannon K. Shanmugam, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Evie Spanos, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Einar Stole, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Adam R. Tarosky, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; James H. Weingarten, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Marcie R. Ziegler, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC.

For Aktiebolaget Hassle, Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): Ashley E. Bass, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Dane H. Bustwinkas, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Stanley E. Fisher, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Courtney R. Forrest, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Paul B. Gaffney, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Jonathan Gimblett, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Benjamin M. Greenblum, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Timothy C. Hester, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Heidi K. Hubbard, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Thomas A. Isaacson, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; John E. Joiner, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Michael P. Kelly, McCarter & English LLP, Wilmington, DE; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Enrique D. Longton, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Jonathan B. Pitt, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; John E. Schmidtlein, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Kannon K. Shanmugam, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Evie Spanos, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Einar Stole, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Adam R. Tarosky, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; James H. Weingarten, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC; Marcie R. Ziegler, Williams & Connolly LLP, Washington, DC.

For Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Thea Cohen, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Katie Einspanier, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Christopher M. Jackson, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Rebecca A. Koch, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Jay P. Lefkowitz, Kirkland & Ellis, New York, NY; Laurence Adam Schoen, Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky & Popeo PC, Boston, MA; Adam L. Sisitsky, Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky & Popeo PC, Boston, MA; Karen Natalie Walker, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC.

For Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Thea Cohen, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Katie Einspanier, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Christopher M. Jackson, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Rebecca A. Koch, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Jay P. Lefkowitz, Kirkland & Ellis, New York, NY; Laurence Adam Schoen, Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky & Popeo PC, Boston, MA; Adam L. Sisitsky, Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky & Popeo PC, Boston, MA; Karen Natalie Walker, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC.

For Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Sarah Choi, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Lisa Jose Fales, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Danielle R. Foley, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Leslie F. Su, Gordon Law Firm LLP, Boston, MA; Leslie F. Su, Miverva Law, PC, Andover, MA.

For Ranbaxy Inc., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Sarah Choi, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Lisa Jose Fales, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Danielle R. Foley, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Leslie F. Su, Gordon Law Firm LLP, Boston, MA; Leslie F. Su, Miverva Law, PC, Andover, MA.

For Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): James Douglas Baldridge, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Sarah Choi, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Lisa Jose Fales, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Danielle R. Foley, Venable LLP, Washington, DC; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Leslie F. Su, Miverva Law, PC, Andover, MA.

For Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Inc., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): Jonathan B. Berman, Jones Day, Washington, DC; John M. Gore, Jones Day, Washington, DC; Ajay Kayal, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Ellen T. Lowenthal, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Michael T. Marcucci, Jones Day, Boston, MA; Kevin D. McDonald, Jones Day, Washington, DC; Andrew J. Miller, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Alan H. Pollack, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Stephanie L. Resnik, Jones Day, Washington, DC.

For Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Ltd., Defendant - Appellant (14-1521, 14-1522): Jonathan B. Berman, Jones Day, Washington, DC; John M. Gore, Jones Day, Washington, DC; Ajay Kayal, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Andrew D. Lazerow, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, DC; Ellen T. Lowenthal, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Michael T. Marcucci, Jones Day, Boston, MA; Kevin D. McDonald, Jones Day, Washington, DC; Andrew J. Miller, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Alan H. Pollack, Budd Larner, PC, Short Hills, NJ; Stephanie L. Resnik, Jones Day, Washington, DC.

For Mckesson Corporation, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522): Nicholas S. Napolitan, Morrison & Foerster LLP, San Francisco, CA.

For Express Scripts, Inc., Intervenor (14-1521, 14-1522): Michael J. Rossi, Conn. Kavanaugh Rosenthal Peisch & Ford LLP, Boston, MA.

For Cardinal Health, Inc., Intervenor (14-1521, 14-1522): Robert J. Tucker, Baker & Hostetler, Columbus, OH.

For Chamber of Commerce of The United States of America, Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): Jeffrey S. Bucholtz, King & Spalding LLP, Washington, DC; Tyler R. Green, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Washington, DC; Karen F. Grohman, King & Spalding LLP, Washington, DC; Ashley C. Parrish, King & Spalding LLP, Washington, DC; Kathryn Louise Comerfor Todd, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Washington, DC.

Christopher Wirth, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522), Pro se, Bellefonte, PA.

For Public Citizen, Inc., Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): Julie A. Murray, Public Citizen Litigation Group, Washington, DC; Scott Lawrence Nelson, Public Citizen Litigation Group, Washington, DC.

Christopher Donnelly, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522), Pro se, Bellefonte, PA.

For American Antitrust Institute, Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): Richard M. Brunell, Roger Williams University School of Law, Bristol, RI; Joshua P. Davis, University of San Francisco School of Law, San Francisco, CA; Albert A. Foer, American Antitrust Institute, Washington, DC; Daniel E. Gustafson, Gustafson Gluek PLLC, Minneapolis, MN; Randy M. Stutz, American Antitrust Institute, Washington, DC.

James Jared Thule, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522), Pro se, Toms River, NJ.

For American Independent Business Alliance, Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): David A. Balto, Washington, DC; Ellen Meriwether, Cafferty Clobes Meriwether & Sprengel, Philadelphia, PA.

Jonathan Rich, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522), Pro se, Bellefonte, PA.

For Community Catalyst, Inc., Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): David A. Balto, Washington, DC; Ellen Meriwether, Cafferty Clobes Meriwether & Sprengel, Philadelphia, PA.

Terry Lynn Nicholas, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522), Pro se, Florence, CO.

For National Legislative Association For Prescription Drug Prices, Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): David A. Balto, Washington, DC; Ellen Meriwether, Cafferty Clobes Meriwether & Sprengel, Philadelphia, PA.

Edward Breivik, Interested Party (14-1521, 14-1522), Pro se, Lawrence, NJ.

For U.S. Public Interest Research Group, Amicus Curiae (14-1521, 14-1522): David A. Balto, Washington, DC; Ellen Meriwether, Cafferty Clobes Meriwether & Sprengel, Philadelphia, PA.

Before Torruella, Dyk,[*] and Kayatta, Circuit Judges.

ORDER OF COURT

After briefing, oral argument, and submission of this case, defendants filed a voluntary motion to dismiss the appeal. See Fed. R. App. P. 42(b). Defendants argue that because the underlying claims in this case have been resolved, with several defendants reaching settlements and others receiving a jury verdict in their favor, dismissal is appropriate. Defendants do

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not drop their opposition to the class certification order, nor do they commit not to appeal that order after final judgment is entered. They simply wish to eliminate the possibility that this panel will decide now the merits of such an appeal. While plaintiffs agree to a dismissal (if awarded costs), they disagree that the case has been resolved and effectively agree only because in their view a dismissal would resolve the class certification issue in their favor. See Appellee Resp. 1 (" Plaintiffs agree that the appeal has always lacked merit, and thus assent to its dismissal on that ground." ).

" We have broad discretion to grant voluntary motions to dismiss." Am. Auto. Mfrs. v. Comm'r, Mass. Dept. of Envtl. Prot., 31 F.3d 18, 22 (1st Cir. 1994). We think the motion to dismiss should be denied here for three reasons.

First, although some of the underlying issues have been settled and a jury has reached a verdict on some others, the case is not moot. See Am. Auto Mfrs., 31 F.3d at 23 (suggesting denying voluntary motion to dismiss if it is based on " unsound argument [of] moot[ness]" (citation omitted)). Plaintiffs filed post-trial motions, including a motion for new trial, and apparently contemplate an appeal. The parties continue to disagree about whether the class certification was proper.

Second, courts have recognized that a court's prior investment of time in preparing a decision is a relevant factor in deciding whether to dismiss. See 16AA Charles A. Wright & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice & Procedure § 3988 (4th ed. 2008). Here, as in Ford v. Strickland, 696 F.2d 804 (11th Cir. 1983) (en banc) (per curiam), the motion was filed " [a]fter full briefing, extended oral argument, and several months of deliberation during which [we] sought to resolve and reconcile the various issues involved . . . ." Id. at 807. A final draft had already been prepared. See Albers v. Eli Lilly & Co., 354 F.3d 644, 646 (7th Cir. 2004) (per curiam) (denying motion to dismiss " [a]fter a draft of [the] opinion had been written" ); see also Suntharalinkam v. Keisler, 506 F.3d 822, 828 (9th Cir. 2007) (Kozinski, J., dissenting) (dissent " aware of no case where a motion for voluntary dismissal was granted when it was filed after the case was argued and submitted for decision" ).

Third, the defendants here may be acting strategically. See Albers, 354 F.3d at 646 (" One good reason to exercise discretion against dismissal is to curtail strategic behavior." (citations omitted)). Defendants here should not be able to circumvent this panel by dismissing an interlocutory appeal on an issue they can later press again before a different panel in an appeal after final judgment. A party should not be able to " manipulate the formation of precedent by dismissing [an appeal]." Id. at 646 (explaining that a " judicial decision created with a significant investment of public resources is not a bargaining chip that the parties may elect to have vacated" (citing U.S. Bancorp Mortg. Co. v. Bonner Mall P'ship, 513 U.S. 18, 115 S.Ct. 386, 130 L.Ed.2d 233 (1994)).

Accordingly, the motion to dismiss is:

DENIED


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